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dcpid(1)

NAME

dcpid - DCPI daemon.

SYNOPSIS

dcpid [options] database

DESCRIPTION

Dcpid continuously extracts raw samples from the specified performance counter device, associates them with their corresponding images, and updates disk-based image profiles in the specified profile database. A new profile database can be created by specifying an empty directory.

Dcpid also supports an alternate operating mode which allows "Dynamic Access to DCPI Data (DADD)". When run in this mode, the daemon does not write data to a profile database, but delivers it interactively to a registered set of client programs through the use of shared memory.

Dcpid is normally terminated using dcpiquit(1). Dcpid shuts down gracefully in response to termination signals, flushing all unsaved samples to their corresponding profiles before terminating.

Dcpid must be executed with root privileges. If desired, dcpid can be installed as a setuid-root program.

Dcpid can be configured to automatically delete old epochs and profiles (via the -gc option.) This deletion occurs every day sometime between 3am and 5am. All epochs that were started more than seven days ago, and are not one of the three latest epochs are deleted. Therefore the three most recent epochs are always preserved, and all epochs are preserved for at least seven days after their creation.

EVENT OPTIONS

-slot type[:period]+...+type[:period]
-event type[:period]
-t is shorthand for -event

The -event option is deprecated, and may be used to specify only a single event to avoid confusion with earlier versions of dcpid.

The -slot option selects a set of event types to monitor simultaneously using the set of available hardware performance counters. Each event includes a type and an optional period specification. The -slot option may be repeated to specify a sequence of slots which are time-multiplexed onto the hardware counters, allowing a larger set of events to be monitored.

If no -slot arguments are specified on the command line, the default is to monitor cycles and imiss events on Alpha 21064/EV4 and 21164/EV5 processors and to multiplex between cycles and ProfileMe statistics on 21264a/EV67 and later processors; using default sampling periods in either case.

Event Types

See dcpiprofileme(1) for information on ProfileMe event types supported on Alpha 21264a/EV67 and later processors. Non-ProfileMe event types supported on Alpha 21264a/EV67 and later processors are:

  • cycles = processor cycles (c1)
  • retires = retired instructions (c0)
  • replaytrap = mbox replay traps (c1)
  • bmiss = bcache misses or long-latency probes (c1)

Event types supported on Alpha 21264/EV6 processors:

  • cycles = processor cycles (c0 or c1)
  • retires = retired instructions (c0)
  • replaytrap = mbox replay traps (c1)
  • itbmiss = retired itb misses (c1)
  • dtbmiss = retired dtb single misses (c1)
  • dtbdblmiss = retired dtb double misses (c1)
  • retcondbr = retired conditional branches (c1)
  • retunalign = retired unaligned traps (c1)

Event types supported on both 21064/EV4 and 21164/EV5 Alpha processors:

  • cycles = processor cycles
  • issues = instruction issues
  • nonissue = non-issue cycles
  • imiss = instruction cache misses
  • dmiss = data cache misses
  • branchmp = branch mispredicts
  • flow = flow control changes (see Caveats below)
  • pipelinedry = pipeline dry cycles (no valid I-stream data)
  • issue2 = cycles with 2 issues
  • intop = integer operations (excluding loads/stores)
  • fpop = floating point operations (excluding loads/stores/br)
  • load = load instructions
  • store = store instructions

Additional event types supported on Alpha 21164/EV5 processors:

  • itbmiss = instruction translation buffer misses
  • dtbmiss = data translation buffer misses
  • pcmp = PC mispredicts
  • iaccess = instruction cache accesses
  • daccess = data cache accesses
  • smiss = on-chip secondary cache misses
  • srmiss = on-chip secondary cache read misses
  • swmiss = on-chip secondary cache write misses
  • saccess = on-chip secondary cache accesses
  • sread = on-chip secondary cache reads
  • swrite = on-chip secondary cache writes
  • svictim = on-chip secondary cache victims
  • sshwrite = on-chip secondary cache shared writes
  • bmiss = board-level cache misses
  • bhit = board-level cache hits
  • bvictim = board-level cache victims
  • bref = board-level cache references
  • sysinv = system invalidates
  • sysread = system read requests
  • sysreq = system requests
  • splitissue = split issue cycles
  • replaytrap = replay traps
  • issue1 = cycles with 1 issue
  • issue3 = cycles with 3 issues
  • issue4 = cycles with 4 issues
  • mb = memory barriers
  • loadmerged = loads merged (in MAF)
  • ldureplay = load/use (ldu) replays
  • wbmafreplay = write buffer or maf full replays
  • loadlocked = LDx_L instructions
  • longstall = stall longer than 12 cycles
  • external = external event (system-specific or unused)

Additional event types supported on Alpha 21064/EV4 processors:

  • palmode = cycles executing palcode
  • pipefrozen = pipeline frozen due to resource conflict

The optional event period follows the event type, and has the format :Mperiod, where M is a period modifier, and period is the sampling period. If the event period is omitted, reasonable defaults are automatically chosen based on the particular event type and the processor hardware.

The period modifier must be R, denoting a random sampling interval with a mean equal to period events, or F, denoting a fixed sampling interval equal to period events. If omitted, the default is to use a random sampling interval on hardware that supports it, or a fixed sampling interval otherwise.

The sampling period specifies how often the event should be sampled, expressed as a decimal number. The suffix K can be used to scale the specified period by 1024.

The period modifier and period specifications are limited on the Alpha 21064/EV4 processor, which uses a fixed sampling period (65536 for cycles, issues, and flow, and 4096 for the other events). Later Alpha processors such as the 21164/EV5 have hardware support for modifying the sampling period and can support arbitrary fixed periods, as well as randomized periods. Randomization of the sampling interval helps avoid undesirable synchronization effects with periodic code execution. Caveat: The current driver implementation restricts the set of valid randomized periods. For the cycles event, a valid randomized period must have the form (65536 - 2^n). Future versions of the driver may allow more flexibility.

Examples

-slot cycles:R63488+imiss
Monitor cycle counter events, with a randomized sampling period whose mean is one sample every 63488 cycles. In addition, simultaneously monitor imiss events using the default period.

-slot cycles+imiss:F4096 -slot cycles+dmiss -slot cycles+branchmp
Always monitor cycle counter events with the default sampling period. In addition, rotate among gathering imiss, dmiss, and branchmp events, using a fixed 4K sampling period for imiss, and the default sampling rates for dmiss and branchmp.

-slot cycles+imiss -slot cycles+imiss -slot cycles+dmiss
Always sample cycles with the default sampling period. Switch between sampling imiss events 2/3 of the time and dmiss events 1/3 of the time, using the default sampling rate for those events. In this example, one event is repeated across multiple -slot options, in order to sample it more frequently than the other kinds of events.

Caveats

Alpha aggregate performance counter interrupts are not precise for events other than cycles and dtbmiss, so a sample for some other event may not be correctly attributed to the instruction which generated the event. On 21264/EV6 processors, none of the events are guaranteed to be precise, but the replaytrap event usually seems to be. ProfileMe performance counter interrupts are also not precise; but the PC of the profiled instruction is latched so that the attributions are always correct.

There are only a limited number of hardware performance counters (3 on Alpha 21164/EV5 processors and 2 on all other Alpha implementations), and each counter can only count a subset of all events. Thus, certain combinations of events cannot be simultaneously monitored. Consult the Alpha AXP Architecture Reference Manual by Sites & Witek, Appendix D, for detailed information about legal event combinations. dcpid uses a simplistic algorithm to select a counter for each event on the command line, so the order of the events on the command line can affect whether dcpid finds a counter for each event. It is better to list events that can be counted only on a single counter before other events.

When multiplexing events, the cycles event type must always be monitored, since cycle sample interrupts are used to decide when to switch to the next multiplexed event type. This switching interval is controlled by the -mux option (see below).

On the Alpha 21064/EV4 processor, issues counts the total number of instruction issues divided by 2, and nonissues counts the total number of nonissues divided by 2.

On the Alpha 21164/EV5, the meaning of the "flow" event is altered by whether the "branchmp" or "pcmp" events are samples at the same time as the "flow" event: With "branchmp" sampling, "flow" events happen only at conditional branches. With "pcmp" sampling, "flow" events happened only at jsr and ret instructions. (Simultaneous sampling of "branchmp" and "pcmp" events is not possible, though multiplexed sampling of these events is possible.)

-mux interval
-I is shorthand for -mux

For slot multiplexing, switch the events being monitored every interval units of 64K cycles. The default multiplexing interval is 10; i.e. the monitored events will be switched about every 640K cycles.

Note: the default multiplexing interval is 100 for Alpha 21064/EV4-based machines. On the 21064/EV4, counter values cannot be read and restored. During event multiplexing, this means that the counter values are reset to zero whenever a multiplexing interval expires. With frequent time-multiplexed switching, this can result in distortion in the sampling of events. For this reason, it is recommended that the multiplexing interval not be set below about 20 for this processor.

IMAGE ASSOCIATION OPTIONS

-bypid image
-i is shorthand for -bypid
Store separate profiles for each process that loads the specified executable image. By default, the profile associated with an executable image contains aggregated samples for all processes that execute that image. This option allows samples to be identified by process as well as by image. The filenames for per-process profiles have the suffix "_PID", where PID is a local process identifier. This option can be repeated to specify per-process profiling for multiple executable images.

-map mapfile
-m is shorthand for -map
Use specified map file generated by dcpiscan(1) for associating processes with named images. This option can be repeated, allowing several map files to be specified; information from all of the supplied map files is merged.

Dcpiscan is automatically run at installation time to create the default local map of images found in the usual places (e.g. /usr/bin, /usr/shlib, et cetera). Note: The default map does not include any images found in /usr/local. If there are significant images in /usr/local or other non-standard local directories, you should use dcpiscan to create a map for those files.

-forkid seconds
A hook in the kernel exec path provides information to dcpid about image loadmaps for statically-loaded processes. The system loader provides information to dcpid about image loadmaps for dynamically-loaded processes (unless the user's environment variable RLD_DCPI_DISABLE is set). Unfortunately, there is no convenient hook for capturing information about processes that are created via fork(2) which do not subsequently invoke exec(2).

To obtain loadmap information for such forked processes that are relatively long-lived, periodic scans of system tables are performed to match unknown forked processes with information known about their parents. By default, a scan is performed every 30 seconds. This feature can be disabled by specifying a scan period of 0 seconds.

-unknown
-u is shorthand for -unknown
Store separate per-process profiles for samples that cannot be associated with any image. Unknown samples will be stored in profiles associated with 1MB regions of each process address space; these "anonymous" profiles are given names of the form hostPID@address. If this option is not specified, a count of all unknown samples is stored in a single profile named unknown@host.

PROFILE DATABASE OPTIONS

-epoch
-e is shorthand for -epoch
Use the most recent existing epoch for storing new profiles. By default, a new epoch is created each time dcpid is restarted. New epochs can also be started using dcpiepoch(1).

-create_epoch
-ce is shorthand for -create_epoch
Create a new profiling epoch within the named database. Specifying -create_epoch does not result in a full invocation of the daemon. Instead, the daemon shuts down immediately once the new epoch has been created. This option is intended for use in a cluster environment, where it should precede the launch of daemons on multiple nodes. The daemon invocations which follow should all specify the -epoch option, with the result being that all profile data will be written to the same epoch within a centralized database.

-gc
By default, dcpid never deletes profile data. If this option is supplied, dcpid will delete old epochs. It will still keep at least the three latest epochs, as well as any epoch that was created within the last seven days.

-merge seconds
-M is shorthand for -merge
Merge buffered profile samples from dcpid to the non-volatile profile database every seconds seconds. Defaults to every 600 seconds (10 minutes).

DRIVER OPTIONS

-flush seconds
-F is shorthand for -flush
Flush samples from the performance counter device driver to dcpid every seconds seconds. Defaults to every 300 seconds (5 minutes). Samples are also automatically flushed from the driver to dcpid whenever remaining driver buffer space is low.

-hash bytes
-H is shorthand for -hash
Specifies the desired size of the driver hash table data structure in bytes. The default is 524288 (512K bytes). The driver treats the specified size as a hint, and may impose additional constraints, such as forcing the actual size to be a power of two.

-chunk bytes
-C is shorthand for -chunk
Specifies the desired chunk size to use when flushing driver hash table data structure. The default is 16384 (16K bytes). The driver treats the specified size as a hint, and may impose additional constraints, such as forcing the actual size to be a power of two.

LOGGING OPTIONS

-log logfile
-l is shorthand for -log
Use specified file for logging warnings, errors, debugging information, and other messages. Defaults to dcpid-host.log in the specified profile database directory, where host is the local hostname. The log file is written using append mode, so it is safe to reuse the same log file across dcpid invocations.

Note: the Unix command tail -f is useful for watching the log as it is written.

-quiet
-q is shorthand for -quiet
Operate in quiet mode, disabling most message logging. By default, dcpid logs errors, debugging information, and other messages to the specified log file.

-verbose
-v is shorthand for -verbose
Operate in verbose mode, enabling extra message logging.

-status seconds
-L is shorthand for -status
Log dcpid status information to the log file every seconds seconds. The default period is 0 (i.e. disabled).

-logmaps
-x is shorthand for -logmaps
Log image loadmap information as it becomes available.

VALUE-PROFILING OPTIONS

-vprof
Enables value-profiling, if supported by the driver. Value profiling is an extension to DCPI data collection that captures register values for profiled user-mode instructions. Value profiling imposes additional overhead, with a typical slowdown of approximately 10%.

-vreplay
Enables value-profiling for detecting potential replay traps, if supported by the driver. This value profiling mode captures the PC values for recent memory operations accessing either (1) the same effective address as the profiled instruction, or (2) an effective address that would map to the same 64-byte cache line in a 32-direct mapped cache. Case (1) identifies instructions that might trigger order and wrong-size replay traps on the 21264/EV6. Case (2) identifies instructions that might trigger what is sometime called a "troll trap" or "cache synonym trap" on the 21264/EV6. For more details about replay traps, see the Compiler Writer's Guide for the Alpha 21264 (Document part # EC-RJ66A-TE) available from http://h18000.www1.hp.com/products/software/alpha-tools/documentation/current/chip-docs.html

-vtrace library
-vtrace 'library arg'
Enables trace value-profiling, if supported by the driver. (Note that library must be specified as an absolute pathname.) This value-profiling mode allows you to specify what values are captured, how they are processed before being merged into the profile files, and how the values are formatted for printing. library should be a shared library implementing an interface to perform these functions. See dcpivfilter(1) for more details on the interface that library is expected to implement.

An optional argument, arg, may be specified for use by the library initialization routine. However, note that both the library and arg must occur together as part of the same option string, which can be specified by using shell quoting conventions, e.g. 'library arg'.

CAVEAT: When this or other forms of value profiling are enabled, dcpid has to spend considerable memory resources to remember the lists of most frequent values for all profiled instructions. In the current implementation, this could cause dcpid to run out of memory on some occasions. If this occurs, you may want to enable only one value profiling mode at a time.

-vkprof
Enables value-profiling for kernel-mode instructions.

-vcontext
Captures additional context information with each value sample. Currently, the values of the ra register and memory location 0(sp) are captured to identify the call site associated with each sample.

-vinterp n
Specifies that n instructions should be interpreted for each sample. This is a low-level option that may not be supported in future releases.

-vfraction n
Specifies that interpretation should happen once every n sampling interrupts. n will be rounded down to the nearest power of 2.

DYNAMIC ACCESS TO DCPI DATA (DADD) OPTIONS

-dyn
Specifies that the daemon is to run in a mode which allows "Dynamic Access to DCPI Data (DADD)". In this mode, the daemon collects and delivers performance data for specifically identified processes. The collected data is not written to a profile database, but is provided interactively (via shared memory) to client programs which have registered interest in such data.

-DF milliseconds
Flush samples from the performance counter driver to dcpid and write updated data to the appropriate shared memory regions every milliseconds milliseconds. Defaults to every 10 milliseconds. Update periods shorter than the default should only be used when dictated by specific user requirements. In general, shorter periods are not recommended because the resulting increase in system overhead can be significant.

For complete information regarding DADD, please see "DCPI/DADD: User's and Administrator's Guide".

OTHER OPTIONS

-help
Print dcpid usage message and then terminate.

-version
-V is shorthand for -version
Print dcpid version string.

-nodaemon
-D is shorthand for -nodaemon
Do not run dcpid as a daemon. By default, dcpid places itself in the background, detaches from its terminal, and redirects all output to its log file.

-nice priority
Adjusts the scheduling priority for dcpid. Positive priority values result in lower scheduling priority; negative priority values result in higher scheduling priority. See nice(1) for more information about Unix priority scheduling.

-socket socket
-s is shorthand for -socket
Use specified local Unix socket pathname for incoming messages from client applications such as dcpiflush(1), dcpiepoch(1), and dcpiquit(1). Defaults to /dev/.dcpid0, the default path used by these client applications and the loader. This is a low-level option that may not be supported in future releases.

LIMITATIONS

When collecting data using multiple "-slot"s, each slot must have at least one event that occurs at least every 2^30 cycles, e.g., retires, cycles, issues, or profileme mode. Dcpid does not check this requirement.

SEE ALSO

dcpi(1), dcpi2bb(1), dcpi2pix(1), dcpi2ps(1), dcpicalc(1), dcpicat(1), dcpicc(1), dcpicoverage(1), dcpictl(1), dcpidiff(1), dcpidis(1), dcpiepoch(1), dcpiflow(1), dcpiflush(1), dcpikdiff(1), dcpilabel(1), dcpildlatency(1), dcpilist(1), dcpiprof(1), dcpiprofileme(1), dcpiquit(1), dcpiscan(1), dcpisource(1), dcpistats(1), dcpisumxct(1), dcpitar(1), dcpitopcounts(1), dcpitopstalls(1), dcpiuninstall(1), dcpiupcalls(1), dcpivarg(1), dcpivcat(1), dcpiversion(1), dcpivlst(1), dcpivprofiler(1), dcpiwhatcg(1), dcpix(1), dcpiformat(4), dcpiexclusions(4)

For more information, see the DCPI project home page http://h30097.www3.hp.com/dcpi.

COPYRIGHT

Copyright 1996-2004, Hewlett-Packard Company. All rights reserved.